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          專家觀點
          孫發成:傳統工藝傳承中的“技藝黑箱”
          來源:孫發成 非遺中華     發布時間:2017/9/26  瀏覽量: 次    字體:
          根據《中國傳統工藝振興計劃 (國辦發〔2017〕25號)》的界定,傳統工藝是指具有歷史傳承和民族或地域特色、與日常生活聯系緊密、主要使用手工勞動的制作工藝及相關產品,是創造性的手工勞動和因材施藝的個性化制作,具有工業化生產不能替代的特性。傳統工藝的振興和發展是中華優秀傳統文化傳承體系的重要組成部分,而傳統工藝振興的基礎和關鍵是核心技藝及其內在文化的傳承。


          傳統技藝-制作陶瓷

          由于傳統工藝的傳承是一個動態過程,與其特定的歷史文化和社會生活相連,多依賴于傳承人的口傳身授,受制于傳承人的個體知識和經驗,因此在傳承效果的把握上具有較大難度。控制論中“黑箱”理論對于我們認識傳統工藝的傳承問題有積極的啟示意義,因為傳統工藝的傳承過程可以看作是“技藝黑箱”逐漸被打開的過程。

            在控制論中,通常把未知區域或系統稱為“黑箱”,把全知區域或系統稱為“白箱”,介于二者之間或部分可察“黑箱”稱為“灰箱”。“黑箱”具有某種功能,但卻無法直接從外部觀測其內部結構,只能通過觀測其輸入輸出的關系及動態過程去探究其內在的規律和特征。比如人腦就可以看作是一個“黑箱”,它具有學習、記憶和思維能力,但是我們對其實現這些功能的內在機制卻尚不清楚。

          控制論創始人之一艾什比在《控制論導論》中曾說:“所有的事物,實際上都是“黑箱”。并且,我們從孩提時代起直到老態龍鐘,一輩子都在跟黑箱打交道。”在我們生活的客觀世界中,“黑箱”其實無處不在。“黑箱”又具有相對性,對于某一研究對象,對于一部分人來說是“黑箱”,對于另一部分人可能是“灰箱”或“白箱”。而且隨著時間的演變,原來是“黑箱”的對象可能會變成“白箱”。在傳統工藝傳承中,我們對“技藝黑箱”的研究,主要把認識主體定位在師徒制之中。

            與現代工業不同,傳統工藝立足于特定的歷史、民族和地域,有獨特的工具、材料和技藝系統。如果說現代科學及其技術轉化代表著人類求真的理性訴求,那么傳統工藝所秉持的知識體系更多具有向善求美的倫理內涵,指向人類內心的精神世界。傳統工藝的傳承,向來以師徒相授、口耳相傳、行為示范為主要范式,伴隨著很多口訣、行話、禁忌、俗信,其本質是手工藝人內在知識和經驗的傳承。這種知識和經驗大部分無法量化和通過實驗來證明,它內嵌在手工藝人的頭腦中,通過“手心一體”的操作表現出來。

          單純從傳承的層面來講,師傅是傳承主體,師傅掌握的工藝知識是傳承客體,徒弟是接受主體。師傅的知識體系存貯在大腦中,并與其工藝技巧和操作程式融為一體。師傅需要通過語言、圖錄、動作等一定的方式將技藝傳遞到徒弟身上;徒弟對某一技藝的學習和掌握需要通過反復觀察、實踐、領悟,師徒間建立默契,才可以最終掌握師傅的技能。因此,師傅所掌握的核心技藝、個人經驗和訣竅,對于初學的徒弟來說毫無疑問是一個 “技藝黑箱”(甚至這個 “黑箱”內的某些知識連師傅也沒有意識到),徒弟掌握師傅本領的過程就是一個“技藝黑箱”逐漸變“白”的過程。

            “技藝黑箱”里的內容大多是與主體緊密融合的知識,這種知識屬于波蘭尼所言的意會知識(隱性知識)。根據波蘭尼的理論,人類知識分為兩類——編碼知識(顯性知識)和意會知識(隱性知識)。編碼知識是可以被清楚表達和明確分類的知識。對于傳統工藝而言,主要包括工藝材料、工具相關的科學知識,如材料的生物學、物理學特征,工具的使用程序、主要功能等都是公共性的知識;另一類是關于工藝行業內的規范性公約、行規制度、禁忌俗信、通用藝訣等,從業者人盡皆知,但具有適用范圍,是一種嵌入的編碼知識。編碼知識不屬于“技藝黑箱”內的知識,因為它只是與工藝傳承相關的最基礎知識。但從根源上講,編碼知識源于意會知識。意會知識(隱性知識)是一種與主體融合、很難被明確表達和交流的知識,具有意會性、經驗性、層次性,它是“技藝黑箱”內的主要內容。

          主要包括對工藝材料的辨識、調配、利用能力,關于工具的使用方式、手法、力度等應用能力,關于工藝產品造型、色彩、質感、題材等創作能力,關于從藝的價值觀、思想意識、審美取向和態度等。在傳統工藝的傳承過程中,師傅的舉手投足和言語間其實都充滿著意會知識 (隱性知識),這一知識需要徒弟去領會、理解。在學習的過程中,因徒弟個體天賦及學習能力存在差異,加之師傅的教學能力和主觀意向不同,傳承效果會有顯著不同。正因為此,有些傳承人能成為大師,有些傳承人只能成為普通的從業者。

            “技藝黑箱”的存在,既影響知識持有者,也影響知識接受者,因而導致傳統工藝領域的師徒相授模式存在較多不確定性。一種情況是,師傅主觀上愿意將畢生所學傳授給徒弟,比如在家族傳承中(父子相承或母女相承),理論上應該是完全傳承某一技藝的全部精華,但受師傅的表達能力和徒弟的接受能力的限制,可能會導致部分技藝的弱化、變異或失傳;另一種情況是,師傅在教授技藝時主觀上會有所保留,即使徒弟天資聰穎,也未必能夠得到全部技藝精華,從而導致某些核心技藝的失傳。

          由此看來,“技藝黑箱”的存在是不利于傳統工藝的有效傳承的,但“技藝黑箱”又是客觀存在的。近代西方的產業革命之所以具有強大的力量,能夠對傳統工藝產生顛覆性的沖擊,其重要原因之一就是打破了傳統工藝中“技藝黑箱”的壟斷,建立在現代科學的基礎上,其工藝生產都是可以量化和準確控制的。因為其工藝知識已經被編碼,剝離了不確定的意會知識,材料、工具設備只需按章使用即可。這給我們的啟示是,在今天的傳統工藝傳承中應努力把 “技藝黑箱”內的內容編碼化,化不確定為確定,讓”黑箱“變白。因為被編碼后的意會知識會蛻變為編碼知識,可以脫離主體而存在,為更多人所共享。

          當前我們強調的專注堅守、追求卓越的工匠精神,正是從“技藝黑箱”中延伸出來的。只有發揮工匠精神,打破“技藝黑箱”的壟斷,才能實現技藝傳承的效能最大化。但這種打破不是要消滅“技藝黑箱”(事實上也不可能消滅),而是實現一種知識轉化,把某種技藝的精華最大程度地傳遞下去。由于“技藝黑箱”與個體相連,個體知識是不斷發展的,“技藝黑箱”內的新知識會不斷產生,而且不能短時間內實現交流和共享,從而也保證了傳統工藝持有者的個性特征和源源不斷的創造力。毋庸置疑,“技藝黑箱”的存在,在一定意義上推動了工藝大師的產生,也保障了傳統工藝品所具有的機械工藝品所永遠不具備的人性溫情。

            換一個角度看,傳統工藝中的“技藝黑箱”體現出一種不同于暴力、身份和財富的權力——知識權力。權力的擁有者掌握著某種工藝知識的制高點,是某個領域的佼佼者,在業內具有較大話語權。在傳統工藝的傳承過程中,師傅的權威正是建立在這種對工藝知識的專有和壟斷之上的,徒弟對這一知識渴求的欲望越大,師傅所擁有的工藝知識所彰顯出來的權力越大。這種知識供需所突顯出的張力大小,直接影響著某一工藝在社會上發展空間的大小。在當代,傳統工藝的發展呈現出幾家歡喜幾家愁的狀態,與“技藝黑箱”的存在不無關聯。瀕危工藝種類產生的一個重要的動因就是其所具有的 “技藝黑箱”已不具備吸引力,或者與社會脫節,或者失去功能,知識權力處于失語狀態,必然走向沒落。

            總之,傳統工藝中的“技藝黑箱”是柄雙刃劍,它一方面阻礙了大量技藝知識的有效傳承和廣泛傳播,另一方面又確立起工藝權威,激發創造性工藝產品的產生。在傳統工藝傳承中,我們應該關注傳承人的 “技藝黑箱”,通過觀察、模仿、對話等多種途徑探求“黑箱”內的知識,推動核心技藝的有效傳承。同時也鼓勵傳承人弘揚工匠精神,發揮創造能力,生成更高級的技藝知識,多出高質量的作品。
            (本文系教育部人文社科研究青年基金項目“民間傳統手工藝傳承中的‘隱性知識’研究”(14YJC760052)階段性成果)
            (作者單位:浙江師范大學文化創意與傳播學院)

          注:圖文來自網絡,非遺中華整理,公眾號“非遺中華(id:feiyizhonghua)”!
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